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Chapter 7: 1844-1860 Inquiry Organizer

๐Ÿ“Ž Inquiry Organizer Summary of chapter objectives and resources
๐Ÿ“– Chapter Introductory Essay In-depth overview of significant events in the time period
๐Ÿ”Ž Narratives Shorter essays on a dramatic story or individual
๐Ÿ“ Decision Points Narratives that describe a pivotal decision in history
๐Ÿ’ฌ Point-Counterpoints Differing sides of an argument presented by scholars or historical figures
โœ’๏ธ Primary Sources Firsthand accounts from the time period
๐Ÿ“ Lessons Instructions and handouts to engage students in the classroom
โœ๏ธ Unit Essay Activity Culminating essay based on AP LEQs to assess chapter objectives
Unit 4: Chapter 7 (1844-1860)
Compelling Question:Was the Civil War inevitable?
Chapter Objectives:

  • Students will be able to explain how the acquisition of new territories changed the social, cultural, and economic landscape of the United States
  • Students will be able to analyze the causes of sectional tensions including slavery, westward expansion, economics, and cultural differences.
  • Students will be able to analyze the causes of the Civil War and whether that war could have been avoided.
Supporting Question 1: How did western expansion contribute to sectionalism? Resources:

  • The 49ersNarrative
  • John O’Sullivan, “Annexation,” 1845Primary Source
  • The Oregon Question: 50-40 or Fight?Decision Point
  • To Go to War with Mexico?Decision Point
  • Debating the Mexican-American War, May 1846Primary Source
  • The American Southwest: Tucson in TransitionNarrative
  • Migration WestDecision Point
  • To What Extent Were Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion Justified?Point-Counterpoint
  • Art Analysis:American Progressby John Gast, 1872Primary Source
Supporting Question 2: What continuities and changes can be seen in the debate over rights and citizenship for various groups within the United States? Resources:

  • Nativist Riots and the Know-Nothing PartyNarrative
  • Frank Lecouvreur,From East Prussia to the Golden Gate, 1851-1871Primary Source
  • Dame Shirley (Mrs. Clappe), Letters from a Western Pioneer, 1851-1852Primary Source
Supporting Question 3: How did ideological and economic differences over slavery affect the relationships among the states? Resources:

  • The Free Soil PartyNarrative
  • Dred Scott v. SandfordDBQLesson
  • Thomas Sims and the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850Narrative
  • Fugitive Slave Act, 1850Primary Source
  • Harriett Beecher Stowe andUncle Tom’s CabinNarrative
  • Harriet Tubman and the Underground RailroadNarrative
  • John Brown and Harpers FerryNarrative
  • Sojourner Truth, “Ain’t I a Woman?” 1851Primary Source
  • John Brown: Hero or Villain? DBQLesson
  • William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass on Abolition, 1845-1852Primary Source
  • Frederick Douglass,Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, 1845Primary Source
  • Negro SpiritualsPrimary Source
Supporting Question 4: How did North and South attempt to compromise in the years leading up to the Civil War? Resources:

  • The Compromise of 1850Decision Point
  • Daniel Webster, “7th of March,” 1850Primary Source
  • Lincoln-Douglass Debates, 1858Primary Source
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act and Bleeding KansasNarrative
  • Charles Sumner and Preston BrooksNarrative
  • The Election of 1860Narrative
  • The Election of Lincoln and the Secession of Southern States DBQLesson
  • South Carolina Secession Debate, 1860Primary Source
Additional Resources:

  • Chapter 7 Introductory Essay: 1844-1860
  • Commodore Perry and the Opening of JapanNarrative
  • Walt Whitman,Leaves of Grass, 1855Primary Source
  • Henry David Thoreau, “Slavery in Massachusetts,” 1854Primary Source
  • Irish and German Immigration DBQLesson
  • Art Analysis: Hudson River School Landscape Paintings, 1836-1868Primary Source
  • BRI Homework Help video: Immigration to America
Unit 4 Essay Activity
Was the Civil War inevitable?
Option A: Explain the major causes of the Civil War.
Through this inquiry, students will analyze the social, political, and economic changes that took place in the 1840s and 1850s. Ultimately, students will use the primary and secondary sources in this chapter to practice constructing an essay, in AP Long Essay Question format, demonstrating their skills in explaining historical causation. Students should be evaluated using the AP Rubric. Assess students’ progress in understanding the compelling question for this chapter by assigning the Unit 4 Essay Activity.

Some components of this resource may contain terminology that is no longer used because the terms are recognized to be offensive or derogatory, and some components may contain images that would be considered offensive or derogatory today. These terms and images have been retained in their original usage in order to present them accurately in their historical context for student learning, including understanding why these are not acceptable today.