Skip to Main Content

Chapter 8: 1860-1877 Inquiry Organizer

📎 Inquiry Organizer Summary of chapter objectives and resources
📖 Chapter Introductory Essay In-depth overview of significant events in the time period
🔎 Narratives Shorter essays on a dramatic story or individual
📍 Decision Points Narratives that describe a pivotal decision in history
💬 Point-Counterpoints Differing sides of an argument presented by scholars or historical figures
✒️ Primary Sources Firsthand accounts from the time period
📝 Lessons Instructions and handouts to engage students in the classroom
✏️ Unit Essay Activity Culminating essay based on AP LEQs to assess chapter objectives
Unit 4: Chapter 8 (1860-1877)
Compelling Question: Did the Civil War help create a more perfect Union?
Chapter Objectives:

  • Students will be able to examine the relationship between military events in the Civil War and changes in politics, society, and justice for African Americans.
  • Students will be able to analyze the changing nature of the goals of the Civil War and whether it wrought a “second American Revolution.”
  • Students will be able to evaluate whether justice for African Americans was achieved through Reconstruction.
Supporting Question 1: What were the major events of the Civil War? Resources:

  • Fort Sumter and the Coming of the WarNarrative
  • The Battle of AntietamNarrative
  • Gettysburg and Vicksburg: July 4, 1863Narrative
  • Abraham Lincoln and EmancipationDecision Point
  • William Tecumseh Sherman and Total WarNarrative
  • Images of Total War: Sherman’s March to the Sea, 1865Primary Source
  • Grant and Lee at AppomattoxDecision Point
  • Did Abraham Lincoln Exceed His Presidential Powers during the Civil War?Point-Counterpoint
  • Was the Civil War Fought Over Slavery?Point-Counterpoint
  • J.B. Elliott,Scott’s Great Snake(Anaconda Plan), 1861Primary Source
  • Mathew Brady,The Dead of AntietamPhotography, 1862Primary Source
  • The Rhetoric of Abraham Lincoln DBQLesson
Supporting Question 2: How did the Civil War affect the lives of different groups of people within U.S. society? Resources:

  • The Draft and the Draft Riots of 1863Narrative
  • Robert Gould Shaw and the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts RegimentNarrative
  • Mary Chesnut’s WarNarrative
  • Clement Vallandigham and ConstitutionalismNarrative
  • Women during the Civil WarNarrative
  • Daniel Emmett’s “Dixie” and Julia Ward Howe’s “Battle Hymn of the Republic,” 1859 and 1861Primary Source
Supporting Question 3: What were the major political developments of Reconstruction and to what extent did Reconstruction change the lives of those living in the South? Resources:

  • Cartoon Analysis:The “Rail Splitter” at Work Repairing the Union, 1865Primary Source
  • O. O. Howard and the Freedmen’s BureauNarrative
  • Comparing Views of the Freedmen’s Bureau, 1866Primary Source
  • The Ku Klux Klan and Violence at the PollsNarrative
  • To What Extent Did American Principles Become a Reality for African Americans during Reconstruction?Point Counterpoint
  • Cartoon Analysis: Thomas Nast on Reconstruction, 1869-1874Primary Source
  • The Impeachment of Andrew JohnsonDecision Point
  • Andrew Johnson’s Veto of the Civil Rights Act, 1866Primary Source
  • The Emergence of Black Codes DBQLesson
  • Comparing Impeachments across U.S. HistoryLesson
Additional Resources:

  • Chapter 8 Introductory Essay: 1860-1877
  • The Homestead Act of 1862Primary Source
  • Unit 4 Civics Connection: Equality, the Civil War, and ReconstructionLesson
Unit 4 Essay Activity
Did the Civil War help create a more perfect Union?
Option B: Analyze the effects of the Civil War on U.S. politics and society.
Through this inquiry, students will evaluate primary and secondary sources to assess the outcomes and consequences of the Civil War. Ultimately, students will use the primary and secondary sources in this chapter to practice constructing an essay in AP Long-Essay Question format, demonstrating their skills in explaining historical causation. Students should be evaluated using the AP Rubric. Assess students’ progress in understanding the compelling question for this chapter by assigning the Unit 4 Essay Activity.

Some components of this resource may contain terminology that is no longer used because the terms are recognized to be offensive or derogatory, and some components may contain images that would be considered offensive or derogatory today. These terms and images have been retained in their original usage in order to present them accurately in their historical context for student learning, including understanding why these are not acceptable today.