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Chapter 9: 1877-1898 Inquiry Organizer

📎 Inquiry Organizer Summary of chapter objectives and resources
📖 Chapter Introductory Essay In-depth overview of significant events in the time period
🔎 Narratives Shorter essays on a dramatic story or individual
📍 Decision Points Narratives that describe a pivotal decision in history
💬 Point-Counterpoints Differing sides of an argument presented by scholars or historical figures
✒️ Primary Sources Firsthand accounts from the time period
📝 Lessons Instructions and handouts to engage students in the classroom
✏️ Unit Essay Activity Culminating essay based on AP LEQs to assess chapter objectives
Unit 5: Chapter 9 (1877-1898)
Compelling Question: How did a changing view of government’s responsibility during the Gilded Age affect American society?
Chapter Objectives:

  • Students will evaluate the consequences of rapid industrialization and the rise of big business on American society and government.
  • Students will trace the rise of reform movements and how they changed American society and culture.
  • Students will evaluate the impact of immigration to and migration within the United States during the late nineteenth century.
Supporting Question 1:How did rapid industrialization and the rise of big business affect American society and government? Resources:

  • Were the Titans of the Gilded Age “Robber Barons” or “Entrepreneurial Industrialists”?Point-Counterpoint
  • Were Urban Bosses Essential Service Providers or Corrupt Politicians?Point-Counterpoint
  • William “Boss” Tweed and Political MachinesNarrative
  • Cartoon Analysis: Thomas Nast Takes on “Boss” Tweed, 1871Primary Source
  • The Transcontinental RailroadNarrative
  • The Brooklyn BridgeNarrative
  • Andrew Carnegie and the Creation of U.S. SteelNarrative
  • The Homestead StrikeNarrative
  • Debating Industrial Progress: Andrew Carnegie vs. Henry GeorgeLesson
  • Ignatius Donnelly and the 1892 Populist PlatformNarrative
  • Populists and Socialists in the Gilded AgeLesson
  • Unit 5 Civics Connection: Civil Rights and Economic FreedomLesson
  • William Jennings Bryan, “Cross of Gold” speech, 1896Primary Source
Supporting Question 2:How did reform movements respond to the rapid changes of the Gilded Age and what effect did they have on American society and culture? Resources:

  • Jane Addams, Hull House, and ImmigrationNarrative
  • Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward, 2000-1887, 1888Primary Source
  • Ida B. Wells and the Campaign against LynchingNarrative
  • Ida B. Wells, “Lynch Law,” 1893Primary Source
  • Plessy v. Ferguson(1896)Narrative
  • Booker T. Washington, “Speech to the Cotton States and International Exposition,” 1895Primary Source
  • Debating Strategies for Change: Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. Du BoisLesson
Supporting Question 3:How did migration to and within the United States during the Gilded Age provide opportunities as well as spark conflict? Resources:

  • The Chinese Exclusion ActDecision Point
  • Cartoon Analysis: Immigration in the Gilded Age, 1882-1896Primary Source
  • Industry and Immigration in the Gilded AgeLesson
  • George Custer, Sitting Bull, and the Battle of the Little BighornNarrative
  • The Dawes Act, 1887Primary Source
  • Images from the Carlisle Indian School, 1880sPrimary Source
  • Cowboys and Cattle DrivesNarrative
  • Was Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis Myth or Reality?Point-Counterpoint
  • Frederick Jackson Turner, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” 1893Primary Source
Additional Resources:

  • Chapter 9 Introductory Essay: 1877−1898
  • The Annexation of HawaiiNarrative
  • The Annexation of Hawaii DBQLesson
  • Grover Cleveland’s Veto of the Texas Seed Bill, 1887Primary Source
  • BRI Homework Help video: African Americans in the Gilded Age
  • BRI Homework Help video: The Story of “Boss” Tweed
  • BRI Homework Help video: Entrepreneurs: A History
Unit 5 Essay Activity
How did a changing view of government’s responsibility during the Gilded Age affect American society?
Option A: Explain the extent to which industrialization brought social and economic continuity and change from 1877 to 1898.
Option B: Explain how various factors contributed to continuity and change in the “New South” from 1877 to 1898.
Through this inquiry, students will analyze the social, political, and economic changes that took place in the late nineteenth century or “Gilded Age.” Ultimately, students will use the primary and secondary sources in this chapter to practice constructing an essay in AP Long Essay Question format, demonstrating their skills in explaining continuity and change over time. Students should be evaluated using theAP Rubric. Assess students’ progress in understanding the compelling question for this chapter by assigning theUnit 5 Essay Activity.

Some components of this resource may contain terminology that is no longer used because the terms are recognized to be offensive or derogatory, and some components may contain images that would be considered offensive or derogatory today. These terms and images have been retained in their original usage in order to present them accurately in their historical context for student learning, including understanding why these are not acceptable today.