Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. New York: Vintage, 2005.
Leibiger, Stuart. Founding Friendship: George Washington, James Madison, and the Creation of the American Republic. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2001.
Washington, George. “Farewell Address.” September 19, 1796
Washington, George. George Washington’s Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior. N.p.: CreateSpace Independent Platform, 2013.
CENTRAL QUESTIONS: How did George Washington’s self-governance influence the early republic? How did it influence what we value in both citizens and leaders?
Before class, post pictures of the Jean-Antoine Houdon sculpture of George Washington and of the John Trumbull painting of General Washington resigning his commission.
Separate the class into two groups. Distribute Close-Reading Washington in Houdon’s Art to one group, and Close-Reading Washington in Trumbull’s Art to the other group.
Have students work in pairs or trios to analyze their assigned work of art using the questions provided.
Once students have completed their analyses, post a photo of the sculpture and invite the students who close-read it to explain it to the students who did not study it. Invite additional observations from other students. Do the same with the Trumbull painting.
Introduce this definition of self-governance: To be self-controlled, avoiding extremes and to not be excessively influenced or controlled by others.
Transition to the George Washington and Self-Governance narrative by asking: Given what you have “read” in this sculpture and this painting, how did George Washington’s character influence the early U.S. republic? How did it influence what our society values in its citizens as well as its leaders?
The optional introductory activity above is designed to support you in the classroom. However, the primary narratives and photos in the section that follows can be used with or without this introduction.
Excerpts from Washington’s Farewell Address, Class Activity
An optional class activity variation: Make a set of cards in one color, with one civic virtue on each card. Make another set of cards in a second color, with one constitutional principle on each card. Duplicate some constitutional principles so that you have the same number of cards in each set, and make enough cards for each student to have one.
Conduct an “inside-outside circle” activity. Students form two concentric circles with the inner circle facing out, and the outer circle facing in. Two “matched up” students (one inner circle, one outer) show each other their cards and explain how that civic virtue and constitutional principle relate to each other. Then, the outer circle rotates clockwise one person while the inner circle stays in the same position. Repeat the process until the circle has made a full rotation and each student has had at least one “match-up” conversation.