- Understand the place of John Winthrop and Roger Williams in American history.
- Compare and contrast competing models of religious liberty in Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island.
- Assess the significance of each model to the American experiment in religious liberty.
- Essay: Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island—Two Models of Religious Liberty
- Handout A: Club Identity Tickets
- Handout B: Club Plans
- Handout C: Reformers’ Plans
- Handout D: Winthrop and Williams—Two Views of Religious Liberty
- Handout E: Venn Diagram
Have students read Essay: Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island—Two Models of Religious Liberty and answer the questions.
- As students enter, hand them a “ticket” from Handout A: Club Identity Tickets, including football club, literature club, music club, etc. Customize the groupings on the basis of existing student interests as much as possible. Limit the number in the Reformers group to four students.
- Seat students in groups based on their identities, and give each group except the Reformers a copy of Handout B: Club Plans. Give each student of the Reformers group a copy of Handout C: Reformers’ Plans and assign them each one role (football, literature, music, computer).
- Have students fill out their forms together, and have a spokesperson from each group except Reformers introduce themselves to the class.
- Next have the Reformers approach their respective groups and ask to join the club. Allow a few moments for discussion among the individual groups.
- Invite one group and the corresponding Reformer to perform a brief role play in which the Reformer seeks to be admitted to the group.
- Next, assume the role of a student and approach one of the groups as a potential member who does NOT share the club’s interest. For example, you wish to join the football club, but you don’t play the game. Or you wish to join the computer club, but you don’t know anything about using one. Engage in a few moments of dialogue.
- Finally, debrief the class with a large-group discussion to answer the questions:
- How many Reformers were accepted into the clubs?
- On what basis were they admitted/rejected?
- How many clubs would have admitted the teacher (playing a student) as a member who did NOT share the club’s interest?
- Should voluntary groups be forced to admit members who have the express goal of banning its basis for existing? Why or why not?
- What about potential members who do not share the goals of the club, but who are not expressly trying to destroy its basis for existing? Explain.
- Distribute and, using available technology, project Handout D: Winthrop and Williams—Two Views of Religious Liberty.
- Beginning with the section on John Winthrop, read each selection aloud, going over the discussion questions as a large group as students complete their Handouts individually or in pairs. Continue with the Roger Williams section.
- Give each student a copy of Handout E: Venn Diagram and with the group begin to fill in the Venn Diagram. Reserve the rest for homework.
- Ask students which model of church-state relations (Massachusetts Bay or Rhode Island) their groups from the Warm-Up tended to adopt.
- As a large group, discuss the questions:
- The Puritans are sometimes criticized for a hypocritical approach to religious liberty—that they wanted religious freedom but they denied it to others. Is this a fair criticism? Why or why not?
- Does it surprise you that Massachusetts was the last of all the states to disestablish its state church? Why or why not?
- What was the express purpose of the colony of Rhode Island?
- Why do you think the colonies, and, eventually, the states, followed the model of Rhode Island and not Massachusetts Bay?
Have students complete Handout E: Venn Diagram.
Have students research the 2009 Supreme Court case of Christian Legal Society Chapter v. Martinez. Have them assume the persona of either John Winthrop or Roger Williams, and write a brief editorial on the ruling.
Reading William Penn and John Winthrop | A Primary Source Close Read w/ BRI
BRI staff members Kirk Higgins and Tony Williams explore two intriguing 17th-century works that shed light on why colonial America was an appealing destination for European settlers in different ways. The seminal “Modell of Christian Charity” sermon delivered by John Winthrop in 1630 viewed the New World as an opportunity for Puritans to worship freely and escape the religious oppression of the corrupt Church of England. In a letter from 1683, William Penn painted an idyllic picture of Pennsylvania – including its beautiful land and bountiful natural resources – to entice people to immigrate to the new colony.
A City Upon a Hill: Winthrop’s “Modell of Christian Charity,” 1630
Use this primary source text to explore key historical events.
Roger Williams: Man of the Word
In this lesson, students will understand how Roger Williams’ identity drove him to found a new colony based on religious liberty. They will also learn how they can use their identity to help them make good decisions.
Anne Hutchinson and Religious Dissent
How did Anne Hutchinson contribute to religious liberty?