How has the Supreme Court defined the right to citizen juries? Explore these landmark Supreme Court cases to find out.
Rex v. Zenger (1735)
The colony of New York tried John Peter Zenger, a newspaper publisher, for seditious libel against the colonial governor. At that time, truth was not a defense in a libel case. Zenger’s attorney, Andrew Hamilton, told the jury of their power and duty to judge the law as well as the facts, and the jury acquitted Mr. Zenger. While not a Supreme Court case, this is a landmark example of jury nullification. Read More.
Strauder v. West Virginia (1880)
A law barring non-whites from serving on juries was an unconstitutional violation of the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause. Read More.
Sparf et al. v. United States (1895)
Federal judges were not obligated to inform jurors of their full rights and powers to judge both the facts as well as the law. Read More.
Smith v. State of Texas (1940)
Racial discrimination in jury selection violated the Fourteenth Amendment. Read More.
Hernandez v. Texas (1954)
Excluding people from serving on a jury because of their national origin violated the Fourteenth Amendment; a conviction was overturned because the accused had been tried before a jury from which members of his ethnicity had been excluded. Read More.
Duncan v. Louisiana (1968)
The Sixth Amendment’s guarantee of jury trials was fundamental to the American system of justice, and states were required to provide them under the Fourteenth Amendment. Read More.
Taylor v. Louisiana (1975)
The Sixth Amendment requires that jurors represent a “fair cross-section of the community.” No citizen could be excluded from a jury pool because of sex. Read More.
Batson v. Kentucky (1986)
The Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments prohibited attorneys from using peremptory challenges to strike prospective jurors solely on the basis of race. Racial discrimination in juror selection damaged the community by “undermining public confidence” in the justice system. Read More.
Powers v. Ohio (1991)
The Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited attorneys from using peremptory challenges to strike prospective jurors solely on the basis of race, whether or not the accused was of the same race/ethnicity as the excluded jurors. Read More.
J.E.B. v. Alabama (1994)
The Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited attorneys from using peremptory challenges to strike prospective jurors solely on the basis of sex. Read More.
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Assembly and Association
Discover landmark court cases where the right to peaceably assemble and associate was tested. The right to peaceably assemble is essential to the maintenance of a free government. Throughout American history, individuals have gathered to ensure their voice is heard by their government. Learn more by exploring these cases.
Criminal Procedure, Search and Seizure, and Due Process
How has the Supreme Court interpreted rights concerning criminal procedure, search and seizure, and due process? Explore these landmark Supreme Court cases to find out.
The division of power between national, state, and local governments is complex and not always clear. Explore these Supreme Court cases to learn how the court has interpreted this important political principle.
Freedom of Petition
How has the Supreme court interpreted the right to petition? The right to petition the government for a redress of grievances is protected by the first amendment. Explore these Supreme Court cases to learn more about this important right.
Freedom of Speech: Campaign Finance
Where does the right to free speech intersect with elections? Find out how the court ruled on this important constitutional question in these cases.
Freedom of Speech: Commercial
Do commercial organizations have free speech protections? Explore these landmark Supreme Court cases to find out how the court has interpreted this constitutional question.
Freedom of Speech: General
How has the Freedom of Speech been interpreted by the Supreme Court? Explore these landmark cases to better understand this important constitutional right.
Freedom of the Press
Explore various landmark court cases where the right to a free press was tested. Freedom of the Press is essential to the maintenance of free government and is guaranteed by the first amendment. Learn more about this right in the cases below.
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The extent and limits of personal liberty have often been argued in front of the Supreme Court. Check out these important cases where the court took up this important issue.