- Read and discuss the founding documents related to the relationship of church and state.
- Compare and contrast the eras in which states disestablished their official churches.
- Compare and contrast the views of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson regarding their understanding of the relationship between church and state through analyzing documents and scenarios.
- Handout A: The Relationship of Church and State in America
- Handout B: Quotes from the Founding about the Relationship of Church and State
- Handout C: Map of Disestablishment in the United States
- Handout D: George Washington, “Farewell Address”
- Handout E: Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to the Danbury Baptists”
- Handout F: Scenario Cards
Have students read Handout A: The Relationship of Church and State in America.
- Prior to class, make posters of the passages on Handout B: Quotes from the Founding about the Relationship of Church and State, and post them around the room.
- Have students go around the room, read the quotes, and write whether the quote supports a close relationship between church and state or whether it supports a separate relationship between church and state.
- Assign students to pairs; have them compare and discuss their answers.
- Ask students to share their answers and discuss the differing views the Founders had regarding the proper relationship of church and state and of religion in the public square.
- Students will color the map on Handout C: Map of Disestablishment in the United States to show when each state disestablished its official church.
- Divide the class into two groups. Half the class will read Handout D: George Washington, “Farewell Address,” and the other half will read Handout E: Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to the Danbury Baptists.”
- Each group of students will write a five- to ten-sentence paragraph answering the guiding questions on their respective handouts exploring the relationship between church and state.
- Pair the students up with a partner who read and completed the other handout. The partners will compare and contrast the views of Washington and Jefferson regarding the relationship of church and state.
- Choose groups to report on the differences and similarities regarding the views of the two Founders OR have the groups write a brief role play debating the views of Washington and Jefferson.
- Ask students the following questions:
- How do Washington and Jefferson differ in the proper amount of government involvement in promoting religion?
- Even though there are differences regarding the proper amount of government involvement in promoting religion, explain how both men then agree that the government must not violate freedom of conscience?
- After the students have filled out their maps, have students complete the questions at the bottom of the map and discuss as a class.
- Distribute a card to each group from Handout F: Scenario Cards and have them assess how Washington and Jefferson might have responded to the scenario based upon their views from Handouts D and E. Discuss the scenarios with the entire class.
- As a large group, discuss the questions:
- Did Thomas Jefferson use the principle of “separation of church and state” to keep religion out of the public square or to protect freedom of conscience?
- What role for religion did the Founders unanimously agree upon in a republic?
- To what extent did the Founders agree on the concept of religious liberty for all?
- Have students write a paragraph analyzing what they think is the proper relationship between government and religion in today’s society. Students should defend their answers with evidence.
- Have students go the Library of Congress online exhibit: Religion and the Founding of the American Republic and examine the documents in “Religion and the State Governments” and “Religion and the Federal Government.” Then, have students develop a chart of arguments for and against government involvement in religion. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel06.html.
Religious Toleration and Religious Liberty
In this lesson, students will explore the evolution in the United States from religious toleration to religious liberty. Students will examine the difference between the two, analyze documents concerning both, and evaluate the significance of this change.
Religious Liberty: Landmark Supreme Court Cases
The Court examined whether the federal anti-bigamy statute violated the First Amendment’s Free Exercise Clause, because plural marriage is part of religious practice. It unanimously upheld the federal law banning polygamy, noting that the Free Exercise Clause forbids government from regulating belief, but does allow government to punish activity judged to be criminal, regardless of an activity’s basis in religious belief. (Citation:98 US 145) BRI e-Lesson Available
Conscience is the Most Sacred Property: James Madison, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and Justice
In this lesson, students will learn about James Madison's fight to promote and advance religious freedom in the State of Virginia. They will explore how his actions conformed to the idea of justice and through his example, learn how they can pursue justice in their own lives.