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West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943)

The West Virginia Board’s policy requiring students and teachers to recite the Pledge of Allegiance was an unconstitutional violation of freedom of speech. Reversing Minersville v. Gobitas (1940), the Court held that government cannot “force citizens to confess by word or act their faith” in matters of opinion.

This case touched on constitutional principles including natural rights, and civic values including courage and respect.