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Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)

In this freedom of religion case, the Court struck down a Pennsylvania law reimbursing religious schools for textbooks and teacher salaries.

The decision established the Lemon Test as a means of determining a law’s constitutionality. A law or program does not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment if: (a) it has a primarily secular purpose; (b) its principal effect neither aids nor inhibits religion; and (c) government and religion are not excessively entangled.

The case touched on constitutional principles including individual rights and limits on rights, and civic values including respect.