Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988)

In this case about public school students’ First Amendment rights to a free press, the Court ruled that public school officials can censor school-sponsored, student-produced newspapers, because the newspapers are part of the school curriculum rather than a forum for public expression. As stated in Bethel v. Fraser (1986), schools do not have to sponsor speech that is inconsistent with their educational mission.

The ruling clarified the meaning of Tinker v. Des Moines (1969), which addressed students’ rights to passive, individual expression.

The case touched on constitutional principles including limits on rights, and civic values including moderation and responsibility.