Executive Order 10730 (1957)

After the Supreme Court held in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that segregation in schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, all public schools were compelled to integrate. Raising issues of federalism, the governor of Arkansas opposed integration and called in the state National Guard to stop the nine black students who had registered for school from entering the building.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this order in September 1957, bringing the Arkansas National Guard under federal control to assist in the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas