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New Jersey Plan

The New Jersey Plan was primarily a response to the Virginia Plan, and was presented at the Constitutional Convention. Under the New Jersey Plan, Congress had the additional powers of setting and collecting taxes. Federal laws were supreme over state laws. It called for Congress to select an executive council, which would serve one four-year term, and which would be subject to recall by state governors. The judiciary would be appointed by the executive and would serve for life.

Many delegates from small states feared that under a system of proportional representation, which was favored by most of the delegates, large states would become too powerful. The New Jersey Plan attempted to give small states powers in Congress equal to those of large states.

The Connecticut Compromise blended the Virginia and New Jersey Plans as a model for state representation in the two houses of Congress: equal representation in the Senate and proportionate in the House.